here, Vikings there, Vikings everywhere…! So today I take us back to one of
my favourite women in history: an absolute kick ass queen who manage to take
rulership of an old Norse state to a different level. Today, I bring you Olga
of Kiev – or rather a summary of the things we know about Olga, because, as you
know, I love me nothing better than dark characters and subjects in history
that no one else seems to care about…Or that have hardly any research
published in English…Oh Well!
So… Who’s Olga?
question! As far as we understand, Queen Olga of Kiev, ruled the realm after
the death of her husband Igor, in the first half of the tenth century. Olga and
Igor had only one son who was at the time of the death of his father, an underaged
infant, which meant Olga acted as his regent…And the rest that we know about
this incredible woman, is patchwork – at best. On a further note about the
issue with the secondary sources- there is more availability of materials in
other languages, mainly in Russian and other Eastern European languages. Even
though, it is surprising how little in general has been written about her
despite she was the first member of the royal family leave paganism behind and
adopt Orthodox Christianity. Despite there are not many secondary sources about
her, there was an increase in the amount of research done about her related to
her conversion to Christianity and the millennium anniversary of her baptism In
fact, Olga was the first member of the dynasty that became Christian; an event
that had repercussions for the entire kingdom in the following years. This
event was exposed in different ways in contemporary sources, which allowed the
historical debate to begin.
According to Moseley, there are extensive materials for the study of middle- and upper-class women, such as personal correspondence and diaries; nevertheless, this does not apply to the Early Middle Ages where it was commonly the monks who recorded most events. Moreover, it was uncommon for women to write for it was seen as ‘exceeding society’s expectations. Apart from a few exceptions, like Christine of Pissan, the limited chances a woman had to influence written work were through patronage, as seen in the Encomium of Emma of Normandy. No sources written by Olga have been preserved or are known, although it has been suggested that the two Slavonic contemporary sources that remain could be based on a lost Encomium. Zemon Davis states that there are plenty of materials for research on European women, despite these might sometimes be under represented. However, we cannot be certain this applies to women that were not from mainland Europe. One of the very few sources we have availale that talk at lenght about Olga is the Russian primary Chronicle (which is super epic by the way, and if you have the time to read it, I thoroughly recommend it). Written in the twelfth century, this is nonetheless a controversial source: The text is meant to be a compilation of earlier manuscripts as well as oral traditions, although it is not disregarded it could just be the product of propaganda: both from the state and the Church. Jesch defines it as an “apocryphal” and “legendary” text where the events are clearly manipulated by the author, but on the contrary Riha thinks that despite the religious bias it is the only remaining source of the early Russian past, so it cannot be disregarded. Thus, this source explains how Olga tricks the Derevlians, killers of her husband, and then leads the army to avenge the death of Igor and impose her rule over the neighbouring land .
to Stafford, Olga was no exception as others like Aethelflead or Gerberga took
active roles in siege and town defence. Furthermore, she states that ‘the
struggles surrounding succession were often accompanied by propaganda wars’, a
fact that fits in with the circumstances of Olga’s son’s minority and the
political instability after the death of Igor. Moreover, it also reflects the
Viking literary heritage presented in the sagas of the warrior maiden, that
shows the perceptions of contemporary women by society. Finally, this source
does mention other affairs related to the administrative power of the queen,
like the economic prosperity reached since c.947 due to the building of several
trading posts and the imposition of a tax on the goods transported through the
Russian rivers. But, this does not say much about Olga’s personal life or
experience of queenship. There is a passage of the Russian Primary Chronicle
that perhaps reflects on this issue or maybe is just a remain of how she
wanted to portray herself as a ruler. According to the events described, the
Byzantine emperor fascinated by Olga proposes her marriage, for it is what she
requires to be baptised. As he performs the rite, she eludes the proposal
because of the formula used by the emperor, which calls her his daughter and
therefore the incestuous controversy stands in Olga’s favour. It is interesting
to know, though, that this is the only source that mentions this event. There
is much debate amongst scholars regarding the truth behind this passage. Some
consider that was the reality, some others that it never did happen. In
addition, there are some that think that even if it happened it would not have
been recorded elsewhere as it would have been a humiliation of the Emperor and,
thus, too favourable for Olga, who after all was a widowed queen from a
“lesser” kingdom. Perhaps that was her way to reinforce her position of widow,
the one moment when women enjoyed more freedom and respect.
to that episode is the most celebrated part of Olga’s life: her baptism and
conversion to the Christian faith. She was the first Russian Christian ruler
who was the most inspiring figure for later tsar’s wives ‘who manipulated her
image as intercessor for her people to legitimize their own roles as spiritual
mothers of the realm and independent rulers’, according to Schaus. The
importance of religion in life reaches its peak with her later beatification
and sanctification. Interestingly, Schulenburg’s research shows how in the
first half of the tenth century the number of female saints, all the clear
example of piety, devotion and morality, increased by 20 per cent. Indeed, it
is known women were a key part in the conversion process and spread of
Christianity, and one of the few subjects where queens could get involved and
develop their own affairs. Specifically, Norse women seem to have used this new
opportunity that Christianity gave them to acquire more influence within their
communities, just like Olga. Furthermore, women, and queens in particular, were
the ones in charge of the spiritual protection of their families, which was
very important for the well-being and prosperity of a dynasty. The importance
of such matter is partially seen in a passage of Adalbert of Magdeburg’s Chronicle
of Regino of Prüm that includes information regarding missionary work
agreed between Olga and the court of Otto I. This is odd considering she was on
good terms with Byzantium and she was converted to the Orthodox faith. However,
it has been suggested that one of her multiple visits to Constantinople was
intended to get a bishop for her realm but due to internal issues within the
Byzantine administration this never happened, which may have made her get in
contact with the Holy-Roman Empire.
However, the German mission failed and with it the developments of Christianity in the Rus. Certainly Olga did not manage to convert her own son to the new faith, but the influence spread, reaching even a more important figure than the heir to the throne: Vladimir, Olga’s grandson. It was with Vladimir’s rule that Kiev became officially Christian, two decades after Olga’s attempt. Poppe suggests that this shows how important it was for female rulers to have support in different spheres and how religion was a way of gaining control and allies at the same time. Related to this, is the general question about status being so prominent and relevant in the study of these figures. There is one last source that deals with this subject, De Caeremonis: the book of ceremonies from the Byzantine court which provides details on the ceremonies Olga attended in Constantinople, and her dinners with the royal family, evidence of her high status and diplomatic abilities. Finally, Jesch mentions the large number of females from her family that had an active role in Olga’s court, perhaps suggesting a sort of female agency, and most definitely establishing the importance of household and family support for these individuals.
is what we can comfortably talk about Olga. There is a very important issue
that I need to address here which is something that Schaus points out and is the
issue of romanticism with figures like Olga. There are extra difficulties to
investigate characters like this due to the pagan-Christian controversy. After
all, Kievan women suffered from the romanticism of the sources and their
personas due to the Romantic and Nationalistic movements Kievan scholars
experimented. Therefore, perhaps what we know about her must be taken with a
pinch of salt? I am a little reluctant to believe it is all a fantasy or apocryphal.
However, the lack of access to sources in different languages make this a very
I still think that Olga is a well interesting figure that did a lot of great
things for her people and that is still very under represented in her field.
And here is the bibliography from where I pulled most of this research…So you can see it is archaic…However, I would like to point out that a few things have come out recently which will be worth examining…I just haven’t had the chance to get my hands on to them.
‘The Russian Primary Chronicle’, ed. T.Riha, Readings in Russian Civilization, Vol. 1, (Chicago and London, 1964), pp. 20-30.
Featherstone, J., ‘Ol’ga’s Visit to Constantinople’, Harvard Ukranian Studies, Vol. 14, No 3-4, (Dec., 1990), pp. 293-312.
Jesch, J., Women in the Viking Age (Woodbridge,
Jewell, H.M., Women in Dark Age and Early Medieval Europe c.500-1200 (Basingstoke and New York, 2007).
Moseley, E.S., ‘Sources for the New Women’s History’, The American Archivist, Vol. 43, No. 2, (Spring, 1980), pp. 180-190.
Poppe, A., ‘Once Again Concerning the Baptism of Olga,
Archontissa of Rus’, Dumbaton Oak Papers, Vol. 46-Homo Byzantinus:
Papers in Honour of Alexander Kazhdan, (1992), pp. 271-277.
Schaus, M., Women and Gender in Medieval Europe: an
Encyclopedia (London, 2006).
Smith-Rosenberg, C., ‘The New Women and the New
History’, Feminist Studies, Vol. 3, No. 1-2, (Aut., 1975), pp. 185-198.
Stafford, P., Queens, Concubines and Dowagers: The
King’s Wife in the Early Middle Ages (London and Virginia, 1983).
Zemon Davis, N., ‘“Women’s History” in Transition: the
European Case’, Feminist Studies, Vol. 3, No. 3-4, (Spring-Summer,
1976), pp. 83-103.